Single-use medical devices (SUDs) are usually made of non-renewable petrochemicals and/or metals. Most, but not all, SUDs are presented as sterile products, with the requisite barrier packaging material. Since the devices are intended to be used only once, both they and their packaging contribute to the solid waste stream. Few of these products are suitable for recycling, because they are considered biohazardous after use, are of composite material or have no after-market for the raw material. All are made of virgin material, in that federal regulations all but preempt the use of recycled material in medical devices that will be in contact with human tissue.